There Is A Truth To Be Told


Abdulwasi, M. (2015). The Sixties Scoop among aboriginal veterans: A critical narrative study. (Master’s thesis). Available at Western Libraries

Adams, D. W. (1995). Education for extinction: American Indians and the boarding school experience, 1875-1928. Lawrence, KS: University of Kansas.

Alarie, D., Lévesque, D., Lévesque, R., & Lévesque, E. F. (2009). The lost generation: First nation communities and white middleclass adoption. Creating Hope Society. Retrieved from

Albers, P. (1985). Autonomy and dependency in the lives of Dakota women: A study in historical change. Review of Radical Political Economics, 17(3), 109-134.

Alexander, K. (2016). Childhood and colonialism in Canadian history. History Compass, 14(9), 397-406.

Alston-O’Connor, E. (2010). The sixties scoop: Implications for social workers and social work education. Critical Social Work, 11(1), 53-61.

Anderson, K. (2011). Life stages and native women: Memory, teachings, and story medicine. Winnipeg, MB: University of Manitoba Press.

Anuik. J. (2009). Metis families and schools: The decline and reclamation of Metis identity in Saskatchewan, 1885-1980. (Dissertation, University of Saskatchewan)

Ariès, P. (1962). Centuries of childhood: A social history of family life. New York, NY: Random House.

Armitage, A. (1995). Comparing the policy of Aboriginal assimilation: Australia, Canada and New Zealand. Vancouver, BC: UBC Press.

Association on American Indian Affairs. (1974a). The destruction of Indian families. Indian Family Defense, 1, 1-2.

Association on American Indian Affairs. (1974b). Senate probes child welfare crisis. Indian Family Defense, 2, 1-6.

Atwood, B. (2010). Children, tribes, and states: Adoption and custody conflicts over American Indian children. Durham, NC: Carolina Academic Press.

Balcom, K. (2007). The logic of exchange: The child welfare league of America, the adoption resource exchange movement, and the Indian adoption project, 1958-1967. Adoption & Culture, 1(1).

Balcom, K. (2011). The traffic in babies: Cross-border adoptions and baby selling between the United States and Canada. Toronto, ON: University of Toronto Press.

Barker, B., Alfred, G. T., & Kerr, T. (2014). An uncaring state? The overrepresentation of First Nations children in the Canadian child welfare system. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 186(14), E533-E535.

Bartholet, E. (1993). Family bonds: Adoption and the politics of parenting. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin.

Battel, M. E. (1979). Children shall be first: Child welfare Saskatchewan, 1944-64. Regina, SK: Saskatchewan Dept. of Culture and Youth Local History Program.

Beck, P., Walters, A. L., & Francisco, N. (1992). The sacred: Ways of knowledge, sources of life. Tsaile, AZ: Navajo Community College.

Bell, S. D. (2013). Manitoba social workers and the pharmaceuticalization of children and youth in care. (Master’s thesis). Available from Dalhousie University Library

Bennett, B., Green, S., Gilbert, S., & Bessarab, D. (2013) Our voices: Aboriginal and Torres Strait islander social work. South Yarra, Australia: Palgrave MacMillan.

Bennett, M., Blackstock, C., & De la Ronde, R. (2005). A literature review and annotated bibliography on aspects of Aboriginal child welfare in Canada (2nd ed.). Ottawa, First Nations Child and Family Caring Society. Retrieved February 4, 2007 from

Blackstock, C. (2010). “Supporting First Nations Adoptions Adoption.” Submission to: Standing committee on Human Resources, Skill and Social Development and the Status of Persons with Disabilities.

Bodor, R., Lamourex, R., & Biggs, H. (2009). Bringing home the kids. Rural Social Work and Community Practice, 14(2), 12-17.

Bombay, A., Matheson, K., & Anisman, H. (2009). Intergenerational trauma: Convergence of multiple processes among First Nations people in Canada. Journal of Aboriginal Health, 5(3), 6-47.

Borrows, J. (2002). Recovering Canada: The resurgence of Aboriginal law. Toronto, ON: University of Toronto Press.

Borrows, J. (2010). Canada's Indigenous Constitution. Toronto, ON: University of Toronto Press.

Bourassa, C., Blind, M., Dietrich, D., & Oleson, E. (2015). Understanding the Intergenerational Effects of Colonization: Aboriginal Women with Neurological Conditions-Their Reality and Resilience. International Journal of Indigenous Health, 10(2), 3.

Briggs L. (2003). Mother child race nation: The visual iconography of rescue and the politics of transnational and transracial adoption. Gender and History, 15(2), 179-200.

Briggs L. (2012). Somebody’s children: The politics of transnational and transracial adoption. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.

Brownlie, R., & Korinek, V. J. (Eds.). (2012). Finding a way to the heart: Feminist writings on Aboriginal and women`s history in Canada. Winnipeg, MB: University of Manitoba Press.

Byler, W. (1977). Removing children: The destruction of American Indian families. Civil Rights Digest, 94, 19-27.

Cahn, N. R., & Hollinger, J. H. (Eds.). (2004). Families by law: An adoption reader. New York, NY: New York University Press.

Cajete, G. (2004). Native science: Natural laws of interdependence. Santa Fe, NM: Clear Light.

Campbell, J., & Moyers, B. (1998). The power of myth. New York, NY: Doubleday.

Campbell, M. (1973). Halfbreed. Toronto, ON: McClelland and Stewart.

Campbell, M. (2010). Stories of the Road Allowance People. Saskatoon, SK: Gabriel Dumont Institute.

Canada. (1966). A survey of the contemporary Indians of Canada: A report on economic, political, educational needs and policies. H. B. Hawthorne, H. A. C. Cairns, & M. A. Tremblay (Eds.).

Canada. (1996). Report of the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples. Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples (Ed.). Ottawa, ON: The Commission.

Canadian Council on Social Development. (1980). Foster Care and Adoption in Canada. H. Philip Hepworth (Ed.). Author.

Canadian Institute of Health Research, Natural Sciences, and Engineering Research Council of Canada and Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada, Tri-Council Policy statement: Ethical Conduct for Research Involving Humans, December 2010.

Cardinal, S. W. (2016). A framework for Indigenous adoptee reconnection: Reclaiming language and identity. CJNSE/RCJCÉ, 7(1), 84-93.

Carp, E. W. (2002). Adoption in America: Historical perspectives. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press.

Carriere, J. (2005). The role of connectedness and health for First Nation adoptees (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from

Carter, S. (1993). Categories and terrains of exclusion: Constructing the 'Indian woman' in the early settlement era in Western Canada. Great Plains Quarterly, 13, 147-161.

Chartier, C. (1981). Summary of proceedings: National workshop on Indian child welfare rights Canadian Indian Lawyers Association Indian Child Welfare Rights Workshop 1981: Regina, Sask National Workshop on Indian Child Welfare Rights Regina.

Chupik-Hall, J. (2001). Good families do not just happen: Indigenous people and child welfare services in Canada, 1950-1965. (Master’s thesis). Available from Collections Canada

Chuchryk, P. (1994). Women of the First Nations. Winnipeg, MB: University of Manitoba.

Corbin Dwyer, S., & Gidluck, L. (2012). Talking about adoption: Considerations for multicultural counsellors when working with transracial families. Asia Pacific Journal of Counselling and Psychotherapy, 3(1), 61-71.

Cott, N. F. (2000). Public vows: A history of marriage and the nation. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Critchlow, D. T., & Parker, C. H. (Eds.). (1998). With us always: A history of private charity and public welfare. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield.

Culleton, B. (1984). April Raintree. Winnipeg, MB: Pemmican.

Dales, A. (1954). Closing a children’s institution in Saskatchewan. Canadian Welfare, 30(6).

Daschuk, J. (2013). Clearing the plains: Disease, politic of starvation, and the loss of Aboriginal life. Regina, SK: University of Regina Press.

DeMallie, R. (1994). Kinship and biology in Sioux culture. In R. J. DeMallie & A. Ortiz (Eds.), North American Indian anthropology: Essays on society and culture (pp. 125-146). Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press.

Demos, J. (2011). Unredeemed captive: A family story from early America. New York, NY: Alfred Knopf.

Dubinsky, K. (2010). Babies without borders: Adoption and migration in the Americas. Toronto, ON: University of Toronto Press.

Dumbrill, G. (2012). Anti-oppressive child welfare: How we get there from here. Ontario Association of Children’s Aid Societies Journal, 57(1), 2-8.

Dwyer, S. C., & Gidluck, L. (2010). Pre-and post-adoption support services in Canada: Implications for policy makers. Calgary, AB: Atlantic Metropolis Centre, St. Mary’s University.

Dyck, E. (2013). Facing eugenics: Reproduction, sterilization, and the politics of choice. Toronto, ON: University of Toronto Press.

Dyck, N. (1991). What is the Indian "problem": Tutelage and resistance in Canadian Indian administration. Memorial University of Newfoundland (Ed.). St. John's, NL: Institute of Social and Economic Research, Memorial University of Newfoundland.

Emberley, J. V. (2001). The bourgeois family, aboriginal women, and colonial governance in Canada: A study in feminist historical and cultural materialism. Signs, 27(1), 59-85.

Ermine, W. (1995). Aboriginal epistemology. In M. Battiste & J. Barman (Eds.), The circle unfolds: Indian education in Canada (101-123). Vancouver, BC: UBC Press.

Ermine, W. (2007). The ethical space of engagement. The Indigenous Law Journal, 6(1), 193-203.

Fanshel, D. (1972). Far from the reservation: The transracial adoption of American Indian children. Child Welfare League of America Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press.

Fast, E., & Collin-Vézina, D. (2010). Historical trauma, race-based trauma and resilience of indigenous peoples: A literature review. First Peoples Child & Family Review, 5(1), 126-136.

Fee, M. (2012). The Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada. Canadian Literature, 215, 6-10.

Fessler, A. (2006). The girls who went away: The hidden history of women who surrendered children for adoption in the decades before Roe v. Wade. New York, NY: Penguin.

First Nations Caring Society. (2014). Information Sheet: The Canadian Human Rights Tribunal on First Nations Child Welfare (Docket: T1340/7708).

Fisher, M. P. (1999). Living religions. Upper Saddle River, AB: Prentice Hall.

Fiske, J. (2004). Carrier women and the politics of mothering. In V. Strong-Boag, M. Gleason, & A. Perry (Eds.), Rethinking Canada: The promise of women’s history (4th ed.). Don Mills, ON: Oxford University Press.

Fiske, J. (2006a). Boundary crossings: Power and marginalization in the formation of Canadian Aboriginal women’s identities. Gender and Development, 14(2), 247-258.

Fiske, J. (2006b). The political status of native women: Contradictory implications of Canadian state policy. In M. Kelm & L. Townsend (Eds.), In the days of our grandmothers: A reader in Aboriginal women’s history (pages). Toronto, ON: University of Toronto Press.

Fixico, D. (1986). Termination and relocation: Federal Indian policy, 1945-1960. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press.

Fournier, S., & Crey, E. (1997). Stolen from our embrace: The abduction of First Nations children and the restoration of Aboriginal communities. Vancouver, BC: Douglas & McIntyre.

Frideres, J., & Gadacz, R. (2001). Aboriginal peoples in Canada: Contemporary conflicts. Toronto, ON: Prentice Hall.

Gleason, M. (1999). Normalizing the Ideal: Psychology, the School, and the Family in Postwar Canada. Toronto, ON: University of Toronto Press.

Gough, P., Trocmé, N., Brown, I., Knoke, D., & Blackstock, C. (2005). Pathways to overrepresentation of Aboriginal children in care. (CECW Information Sheet #23E). Toronto, ON: University of Toronto.

Graham, T., Swift, K. & Delaney, R. (2008). Canadian Social Policy: An introduction. Toronto: Pearson.

Grier, E. (2005). Aboriginal children in limbo: A comment on Re R.T. Saskatchewan Law Review, 68(2), 435-453.

Gulliver, T., & Campney, A. (2015). Healing the pain and hurt: Dealing with the trauma of homelessness. In The Inclusion Working Group (Ed.), Homelessness is only one piece of my puzzle: Implications for policy and practice. Toronto, ON: The Homeless Hub Press.

Hanson, E. (2009). The sixties scoop & Aboriginal child welfare. Indigenous Foundations. Retrieved from

Harding, R. (2009). News reporting on Aboriginal child welfare: Discourses of white guilt, reverse racism, and failed policy. Canadian Social Work Review/Revue canadienne de service social, 25-41.

Harding, R. (2010). The demonization of Aboriginal child welfare authorities in the news. Canadian Journal of Communication, 35(1), 85-108.

Harness, S. D. (2008). Mixing cultural identities through transracial adoption: Outcomes of the Indian adoption project (1958-1967). Lewiston, NY: The Edwin Mellen Press.

Hart, M. A., & Bracken, D. C. (2015). Canadian social work and First Nations people. Social Work in a Global Context: Issues and Challenges, 59.

Hepworth, H. P. (1980). Foster care and adoption in Canada. Ottawa, ON: Canadian Council on Social Development.

Herman, E. (2008). Kinship by design: A history of adoption in the modern Unites States. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

Hudson, P., & McKenzie, B. (1981) Child welfare and native people: The extension of colonialism. The Social Worker, 49(2).

Huntinghawk, L. (2012). Their stories: The experiences of non-Native adoptive parents who adopted Native children during the 1960s through 1980s (Doctoral dissertation, University of Manitoba).

Innes, R. (2013). Elder brother and the law of the people: Contemporary kinship and Cowesses First Nation. Winnipeg: University of Manitoba Press.

Isnana, M., Federation of Saskatchewan Indian Nations, WMC Associates. (1983). Indian control of Indian child welfare: A report. Saskatoon, SK: Federation of Saskatchewan Indian Nations.

Jacobs, M. D. (2009). White mother to a dark race: Settler colonialism, maternalism, and the removal of Indigenous children in the American West and Australia, 1880-1940. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.

Jacobs, M. D. (2013). Remembering the forgotten child: The American Indian child welfare crisis of the 1960’s and 1970’s. American Indian Quarterly, 37(1-2), 136-159.

Jacobs, M. D. (2014). A generation removed: The fostering and adoption of indigenous children in the post-war world. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.

Jamieson, K. (1978). Indian women and the law in Canada: Citizens minus. Canada: Advisory Council on the Status of Women.

Johnson, A.W. (2004). Dream no little dreams: A biography of the Douglas government of Saskatchewan, 1944-1961. Toronto, ON: University of Toronto Press.

Johnson, S. (2013). We are the ones we've been waiting for: Towards the development of an Indigenous educational advocacy organization for Indigenous children in Canada's custody. Canadian Journal of Native Education, 36(1), 126.

Johnston, P. (1983). Native children and the child welfare system. Canada Council on Social Development. Toronto, ON: James Lorimer.

Jones, M. B. (1993). Birthmothers: Women who have relinquished babies for adoption tell their stories. Chicago, IL: Chicago Press Review.

Kan, S. (Ed.). (2001). Strangers to relatives: The adoption and naming of anthropologists in native North America. Lincoln and London, UK: University of Nebraska Press.

Katz, R. (1983). The straight path of the spirit. Rochester, NY: Park Street Press.

Kelm, M. (1996). Colonizing bodies: Aboriginal health and healing in British Columbia, 1900-1950. Vancouver: UBC Press.

Kelm, M., & Townsend, L. (Eds.). (2006). In the days of our grandmothers: A reader in aboriginal women's history in Canada. Toronto, ON: University of Toronto Press.

Kim, D. (1978). Issues in transracial and transcultural adoption. Social Casework, 59(8), 477-486.

Kimelman, Justice E. (1985). No quiet place: Review committee on Indian and Métis adoption and placements, Manitoba Community Services.

Kirk, H. D. (1984). Shared fate: A theory and method of adoptive relationships. Port Angeles, WA and Brentwood Bay, BC: Ben-Simon.

Kirk, H. D. (1985). Adoptive kinship: A modern institution in need of reform. Brentwood Bay, BC: Ben-Simon.

Kirk, H. D. (1988). Exploring adoptive family life: The collected adoption papers of H. David Kirk. B. J. Tansey (Ed.). Brentwood Bay, BC: Ben-Simon.

Kline, M. (1992). Child welfare law, “best interests of the child ideology”, and First Nations. Osgoode Hall Law Journal, 30(2), 375-426.

Kline, M. (1993). Complicating the ideology of motherhood: Child welfare law and First Nation women. Queen’s Law Journal, 18, 306-342.

Kunzel, R. (1993). Fallen women, problem girls: Unmarried mothers and the professionalization of social work, 1890-1945. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

Ladd-Taylor, M. (2012). The traffic in babies: Cross-border adoption and baby-selling between the United States and Canada (review). The Canadian Historical Review, 93(4), 681-683.

LaRocque, E. (1996). The colonization of a Native woman scholar. In C. Miller and P. Chuchyryk (Eds.), Women of the First Nations: Power, wisdom, and strength (pp. 11-18). Winnipeg, MB: University of Manitoba Press.

Lavell-Harvard, M., & Corbiere-Lavell, J. (Eds.). (2006). Until our hearts are on the ground: Aboriginal mothering, oppression, resistance and rebirth. Toronto, ON: Demeter Press.

Lawrence, J. (2000). The Indian health service and the sterilization of Native American women. American Indian Quarterly, 24(3), 400-419.

Leslie, J. (1999). Assimilation, integration or termination? The development of Canadian Indian policy, 1943-1963. (Doctoral dissertation). Available at Collections Canada:

Lock, L. D. (1983). Custom adoption and its implications on the breakdown of the Indian culture. Saskatoon, SK: Native Law Centre, University of Saskatchewan.

Lyslo, A. (1962). Suggested criteria to evaluate families to adopt American Indian children through Indian Adoption Project. New York, NY: Child Welfare League of America.

Lyslo, A. (1964). The Indian Adoption Project: An appeal to catholic agencies to participate. Catholic Charities Review, 48(5), 12-16.

Lyslo, A. (1967a). 1966 year end summary of the Indian Adoption Project. New York, NY: Child Welfare League of America.

Lyslo, A. (1967b). Adoptive placement of Indian children. Catholic Charities Review, 51(2), 23-25.

Lyslo, A. (1968). The Indian Adoption Project – 1958 through 1967: Report of its accomplishments, evaluation and recommendations for adoption services to Indian children. New York, NY: Child Welfare League of America.

Madigan, B. (2015). The voices of the youth: How Indigenous young people experience plans of care (Doctoral dissertation, McMaster University).

Mandelbaum, D. (1979). The Plains Cree: An ethnographic, historical, and comparative study. Regina, SK: Canadian Plains Research Center, University of Regina.

Manitoba Review Committee on Indian and Metis Adoptions and Placements. (1985). No quiet place: Final report to the Honourable Muriel Smith, Minister of Community Services. Winnipeg, MB: Manitoba Community Services.

Manitoba Review Committee on Indian and Metis Adoptions and Placements. (1985). Transcripts and briefs: Public hearings, special hearings, briefs. Winnipeg, MB: Manitoba Community Services.

Maurice, J. M. (2003). De-spiriting Aboriginal children: Aboriginal children during the 1960s and 1970s child welfare era. (Doctoral dissertation.) Available at University of Saskatchewan:

McAdam, S. (2014). Nationhood interrupted: Revitalizing nehiyaw legal systems. Saskatoon, SK: Purich.

McKenzie, B., & Hudson, P. (1985). Native children, child welfare, and the colonization of Native people. In K. Levitt & B. Wharf (Eds.), Challenge of child welfare (pp. 125-141). Vancouver, BC: University of British Columbia Press.

McKenzie, H. A., Varcoe, C., Browne, A. J., & Day, L. (2016). Disrupting the continuities among residential schools, the sixties scoop, and child welfare: An analysis of colonial and neocolonial discourses. The International Indigenous Policy Journal, 7(2), 4.

McNeil, K. (1985). Indian child welfare: Whose responsibility? Saskatoon, SK: University of Saskatchewan Native Law Centre.

Medicine, B. (1981). American Indian family: Cultural change and adaptive strategies. Journal of Ethic Studies, 8(4), 13-23.

Menzies, P. (2010). Intergenerational trauma from a mental health perspective. Collections Canada. Retrieved from

Mercredi, O., & Chartier, C. (1981). The Status of Child Welfare Services for the Indigenous Peoples of Canada: The Problem, the Law and the Solution. Presented at the National Workshop on Indian Child Welfare Rights Conference, 45.

Mihesuah, D. A. (1998). American Indian identities: Issues of individual choices and development. American Indian Cultures and Research Journal, 222(2), 193-226.

Miller, D. C. (1990). Women and social welfare: A feminist analysis. New York, NY: Praeger.

Miller, J. R. (1996b). Shingwauk's vision: A history of native residential schools. Toronto, ON: University of Toronto Press.

Miller, J. R. (1998). From Riel to the Métis. Canadian Historical Review, 69(1), 1-20.

Milloy, J. (1999). A national crime: The Canadian government and the residential school system, 1879-1986. Winnipeg, MB: University of Manitoba Press.

Mitchinson, W. (2002). Giving birth in Canada, 1900-1950. Toronto, ON: University of Toronto Press.

Montour-Angus, P. (1989). A vicious cycle: Child welfare and First Nations. Canadian Journal of Women and the Law, 3(1), 1-17.

Morgensen, S. L. (2012). Theorizing gender, sexuality and settler colonialism: An introduction in settler colonial studies. Settler Colonial Studies, 2(2), 2-22.

Morse, B. (1980). Indian tribal courts in the United States: A model for Canada? Saskatoon, SK: Native Law Center.

Morse, B. (1985). Aboriginal children and the social welfare state in Canada: An overview. Regina, SK: University of Saskatchewan Library.

Morse, B. (1991). Aboriginal peoples and the Law: Indian, Metis and Inuit rights in Canada. Don Mills, ON: Oxford University Press.

Nash-Chambers, D. (2012). Fostering nation? Canada confronts its history of childhood disadvantage (review). Histoire sociale/Social history, 45(90), 455-457.

Nicholson, L. (1996). Native people and the child welfare system: A study in multigenerational experience. (Master’s thesis).

Nuttgens, S. (2004). Life stories of Aboriginal adults raised in non-Aboriginal families. (Doctoral dissertation).

Nuttgens, S. (2013). Stories of Aboriginal transracial adoption. The Qualitative Report, 18(2), 1.

Palmater, P. (2011). Beyond blood: Rethinking Indigenous identity. Saskatoon, SK: Purich.

Park, T. (2003). In the best interests of the Aboriginal child. Windsor Review of Legal and Social Issues, Vol 16(43), 43-70.

Peristerakis, J. (2014). “We must separate them from their families”: Canadian policies of child apprehension and relocation from Indigenous communities (Doctoral dissertation, University of Manitoba).

Perry, A. (2001). On the edge of empire: Gender, race and the making of British Columbia, 1849-1871. Toronto, ON: University of Toronto Press.

Peterson, J., & Brown, J. S. H. (Eds.). (1985). The new peoples: Being and becoming Métis in North America. Winnipeg, MB: University of Manitoba Press.

Phillips, D.W., Raphael, R. J., Manning, D.J., & Turnbull, J. A. (Eds.). (1995). Adoption law in Canada: Practice and procedures. Toronto, ON: Carswell Thomson.

Pitsula, J. (1994). The CCF government and the formation of the union of Saskatchewan Indians. Prairie Forum, 19(2), 131-151.

Pitsula, J. (1996). The Thatcher government in Saskatchewan and treaty Indians, 1964-1971: The quiet revolution. Saskatchewan History, 48(1), 3-17.

Pitsula, J. (1997). The Thatcher government in Saskatchewan and the revival of Metis nationalism, 1964-71. Great Plains Quarterly, 17(3), 213-235.

Quinn, A. L. (2016). Coming full circle – The lifelong journey of becoming: An exploration of resilience processes and outcomes among Aboriginal crown wards of the Ontario child welfare system (Doctoral dissertation, University of Toronto).

Representative for Children and Youth. (2013). Out of sight: How one Aboriginal child’s best interests were lost between two provinces. A special report.

Rooke, P. T., & Schnell, R. L. (1983). Discarding the asylum: From child rescue to the welfare state in English-Canada 1800-1950. Lanham, MD: University Press of America.

Roy, A. (2014). Intergenerational trauma and Aboriginal women: Implications for mental health during pregnancy. First Peoples Child & Family Review, 9(1), 7-21.

Rutherdale, M., & Pickles, K. (Eds.). (2006). Contact zones: Aboriginal and settler women in Canada’s colonial past. Vancouver, BC: UBC Press.

Sangster, J. (1999). Criminalizing the colonized: Ontario native women confront the criminal justice system, 1920-60. Canadian Historical Review, 80(1), 32-60.

Sangster, J. (2001). Regulating girls and women: Sexuality, family and law in Ontario, 1920-1960. Don Mills, ON: Oxford University Press.

Saskatchewan Children’s Advocate (SCA). (2005). A summary of child death reviews 2000 and 2001. Available at:

Saskatchewan Child Welfare Review Panel. (2010a). Final Report. Regina, SK: Saskatchewan Ministry of Social Services.

Saskatchewan Child Welfare Review Panel. (2010b) For the good of our children and youth: A new vision, a new direction. Retrieved from

Saskatchewan Minister’s Advisory Council on Child Protection, Child and Family Services Act 1973 Review. (1984). Submitted to Gordon Dirks, Minister of Social Services. Regina: The Council.

Schneider, D. M. (1968). American kinship: A cultural account. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Sealey, D. B., & Lussier, A. S. (1975). The Métis: Canada’s forgotten people. Winnipeg, MB: Pemmican.

Shevall, M. (2012). A Canadian paradox: Tommy Douglas and eugenics. The Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences, 39(1), 35-39.

Shewell, H. (2004). "Enough to keep them alive": Indian welfare in Canada, 1873-1965. Toronto, ON: University of Toronto Press.

Shore, J. H. (1978). Destruction of Indian families – Beyond the best interests of Indian children. White Cloud Journal, 12, 13-16.

Simon, R. J., & Alstein, H. (1977). Transracial adoption. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Simon, R. J., Alstein, H., & Hernandez, S. (2008). Native American transracial adoptees tell their stories. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books.

Sinclair, R. (2016). “The Indigenous Child Removal System in Canada: An examination of legal decision-making and racial bias”. First Peoples Child & Family Review. Vol 11(2). 16 pages.

Sinclair, R. & Grekul, J. (2012). “Aboriginal Youth in Canada, Alternative Care, and Gang Involvement: (De)constructing an Epidemic.” First Peoples Child & Family Review, Vol. 7(1).

Sinclair, R. (2007a). All my relations – Native trans-cultural adoption: A critical case study of cultural identity. (Doctoral dissertation). Available from ProQuest

Sinclair, R. (2007b). Identity lost and found: Lessons from the sixties scoop. First Peoples Child and Family Review, 3(1), 65-82.

Smith, A. (2005). Conquest: Sexual violence and American Indian genocide. Cambridge, MA: South End Press.

Solinger, R. (2001). Beggars and choosers: How the politics of choice shapes adoption, abortion, and welfare in the United States. New York, NY: Hill and Wang.

Solinger, R. (2005). Pregnancy and power: A short history of reproductive politics in America. New York, NY: New York University Press.

Spencer, D. C. (2016). Extraction and pulverization: A narrative analysis of Canada scoop survivors. Settler Colonial Studies, 1-15.

Stalwick H., Bitternose, L., Thomas, Y. H., & Brook, P. (1985). Reform as the creation of new usages: 1982-1985. Synopsis of the Taking 18 control project. In J. S. Ismael & R. J. Thomlison (Eds.), Perspectives on social services and social issues (pp. 223-236). Canadian Council on Social Development. Selections from the Proceedings of the Second Conference on Provincial Welfare Policy held at the University of Calgary May 1-3,

Stangeland, J. (2014). Permanency from the perspective of Aboriginal youth who have aged out of care: An exploratory study (Doctoral dissertation, University of Calgary).

Stangeland, J. D., & Walsh, C. A. (2013). Defining permanency and Aboriginal youth in foster care. First Peoples Child & Family Review, 8(2), 24-39.

Stephen, J. A. (2007). Pick One Intelligent Girl: Employability, Domesticity, and the Gendering of Canada's Welfare State, 1939-1947. Toronto, ON: University of Toronto Press.

Stevenato and Associates, J. Budgell. (1999). Our way home: A report to the Aboriginal Healing and Wellness Strategy on the repatriation of Aboriginal people removed by the child welfare system. Toronto, ON: Author.

Stevenson, A. (2015). The adoption of Frances T: Blood, belonging, and Aboriginal transracial adoption in twentieth-century Canada. Canadian Journal of History, 50(3), 469-491.

Stirrett, N. (2015). Revisiting the sixties scoop: Relationally, kinship and honouring Indigenous stories. (Master’s thesis). Available at QSpace at Queen’s University;jsessionid=F0399E70C621D3AFB1CAEDF031D785F4?sequence=1

Stone, L. (2000). Kinship and gender: An introduction (2nd ed.). Boulder, CO: Westview Press.

Strong-Boag, V. (2006). Finding families, finding ourselves: English Canada encounters adoption from the nineteenth century to the 1990’s. Don Mills, ON: Oxford University Press.

Strong-Boag, V. (2011). Fostering nation: Canada confronts its history of childhood disadvantage. Waterloo, ON: Wilfrid Laurier University Press.

Sullivan, R., & Charles, G. (2010). Disproportionate representation and First Nations child welfare in Canada. Victoria, BC: Federation of Community Social Services.

Suzuki, D. (1997). The sacred balance. Toronto, ON: Greystone.

Swain, S., & Hillel, M. (2010). Child, nation, race and empire: Child rescue discourse, England Canada and Australia, 1850-1915. Manchester and New York: Manchester University Press.

Swan, J. A. (1990). Sacred places: How the living earth seeks our friendship. Sante Fe, NM: Bear & Company.

Swidrovich, C. M. (2004). Positive experiences of First Nations children in non-Aboriginal foster or adoptive care: De-constructing the "Sixties Scoop". (Master’s thesis). Available at eCommons, University of Saskatchewan

Swift, K. (1995). Manufacturing “bad” mothers: A critical perspective on child neglect. Toronto, ON: University of Toronto Press.

Tait, C., Henry, R., & Loewen Walker, R. (2013). Child welfare: A social determinant of health for Canadian First Nations and Métis children. Pimatisiwin: A Journal for Aboriginal and Indigenous Community Health, 11(1), 39-53.

Thompson, K. (1999). The history of the adoption myth: Adoption policies in Saskatchewan. (Master’s thesis). Available at the National Library of Canada

Timpson, J. (1993). Four decades of child welfare services to Native Indians in Ontario: A contemporary attempt to understand the Sixties Scoop in historical, socioeconomic and political perspective. (Doctoral dissertation). Available at Scholars Commons @ Laurier

Titley, E. (1986). A narrow vision: Duncan Campbell Scott and the administration of Indian Affairs in Canada. Vancouver, BC: University of British Columbia Press.

Tobias, J. L. (1983). Protection, civilization, assimilation: An outline history of Canada’s Indian policy. In I. A. L. Getty & A. S. Lussier (Eds.), As long as the sun shines and water flows: A reader in Canadian native studies (pp. 39-55). Vancouver, BC: UBC Press.

Trevethan, S., Moore, J., Auger, S., MacDonald, M., & Sinclair, J. (2002). Childhood experiences affect Aboriginal offenders. Forum on Corrections Research, 14(3), 7-9. Available at

Trocme, N., MacLaurin, B., Fallon, B., Daciuk, J., Billingsley, D., Tourigny M., …McKenzie, B. (2001). Canadian incidence study of reported child abuse and neglect: Final report. Ottawa, ON: Minister of Published Works and

Turpel, M. (1993). Patriarchy and paternalism: The legacy of the Canadian state for First Nations women. Canadian Journal of Women and the Law, 6(1), 174-192.

Tyler-May, E. (1988) Homeward bound: American families in the cold war era. New York, NY: Basic Books.

Unger, S. (Ed.). (1977). The destruction of American Indian families. New York, NY: Association of American Indian Affairs.

United Nations. (1948). Convention on the prevention and punishment of the crime of genocide. Adopted by Resolution 260 (III) A of the United Nations General Assembly on 9 December 1948. Available at

Valentine, V.F. (1954). Some problems of the Métis of Northern Saskatchewan. The Canadian Journal of Economics and Political Science, 20(1), 89-95.

Van Arragon, A. (2016). The “best interest of the child”: A critical look at complexity and responsibility in child apprehension and adoption (Doctoral dissertation, University of Guelph).

Wagamese, R. (2009). The Sixties Scoop, the primal wound and home. Canadian Dimension, 43(5), 12-13.

Waiser, B. (2005). Saskatchewan: A new history. Calgary, AB: Fifth House.

Waldram, J. (1997). The way of the pipe: Aboriginal spirituality and symbolic healing in Canadian prisons. Toronto, ON: University of Toronto Press.

Walmsley, C. (2005). Protecting Aboriginal children. Vancouver, BC: UBC Press.

Ward, M. (1984). The adoption of Native Canadian children. Cobalt, ON: Highway Book Shop.

Weaver, S. (1981). Making Canada’s Indian policy: The hidden agenda, 1968-1970. Toronto, ON: University of Toronto Press.

Wegar, K. (1997). Adoption, identity and kinship: The debate over the sealed birth records. London, UK: Yale University Press.

Wolfe, P. (2006) Settler colonialism and the elimination of the native. Journal of Genocide Research, 8(4), 387-409.

Woolford, A., & Thomas, J. (2011). Genocide of Canadian First Nations. Genocide of Indigenous Peoples, 8, 61-86.

Van Kirk, S. (1980). Many tender ties: Women in fur trade society, 1670-1870. Winnipeg, MB: Watson and Dwyer.

York, G. (1992). The dispossessed: Life and death in Native Canada. Toronto, ON: Little, Brown.


Adoption Archive Sources


New Breed Magazine, 1970-1985

Regina Leader Post, 1965-1985

Saskatoon Star Phoenix, 1965-1985

Iskwew: Saskatchewan Native Women’s Movement Newsletter, 1975

Statues, Regulations, and Court Cases

Saskatchewan Statues

The Adoption of Children Act

An Act respecting the Welfare of Children

H.R. Rep. No. 1386 at 9. Indian Child Welfare Act of 1977: Hearing Before the United States Senate Select Committee on Indian Affairs, 95th Cong., 1 1977.

U.S. Senate Report. 1977. Hearing on S. 1214 before the Senate Select Committee on Indian Affairs. 95th Congress, 1st Session, 43.

Archival Series

Canada. Record Group 10. Central Registry Series.

Department of Citizenship and Immigration. Indian Affairs Branch.

Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development.

Canada. Department of Indian Affairs. Record Group 10. Black Series.

Canada. Department of Indian Affairs Record Group 10. Red Series

Canada. Legal opinions and material of precedential value. Record Group 13.

Mudd Manuscript Library.

Association on American Indian Affairs Files.

Saskatchewan Archives Board. Government Records Series.

Indian and Metis Department.

Department of Natural Resources

Department of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Branch

Records of the Department of Social Services

Human Resources Development Agency Records

Department of Social Welfare

Human Resources Development Agency

Assistant Deputy Minister, Management Services

Deputy Ministers Files

Premier T.C. Douglas Fonds.

Saskatchewan Archives Board. Manuscript Series.

Saskatchewan Native Women’s Movement.

Social Welfare History Archives.

Child Welfare League of America Papers

University of Illinois. Chicago.

Ekiza McCormick Memorial Fund Archives.

Government Documents

Canada. Department of Citizenship and Immigration. Indian Affairs Branch. Annual Reports, 1950-1965.

Canada. Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development. Annual Reports, 1965.

Canada. Special Joint Committee of the Senate and the House of Commons Appointed to Examine and Consider the Indian Act. Fourth Report [final report], June 22, 1948.

Canada. Department of Indian Affairs. Annual Reports, 1945-1980.

-------. Minutes of Proceedings and Evidence, 1946-1948.

Saskatchewan. Documents and Articles about Métis people. Pamphlet “Métis” Pamphlet  Collection. Saskatchewan Legislative Library, 1972.

Saskatchewan. Government Publications, Department of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation, Annual Reports, 1944/45-1965.

Saskatchewan. Government Publications. Department of Welfare, Annual Reports, 1966-1975.